Two main types of stem cells , pluripotent and multipotent, hold the greatest therapeutic benefit for orthopedic problems. Pluripotent stem cells are isolated from 3 sources:
- From human embryos (Embryonic stem cells, or ESC’s);
- Cloned thru somatic nuclear transfer (SCNT), and
- From adult cells reprogrammed/induced to a pluripotent state (IPSC’s).
Multipotent come from bone-marrow or adipose (fat), and these adult stem cells have less ethical and political controversy, tend to carry less risk, and pose fewer technical challenges than the pluripotent counterparts, as they are directly from the patient who is receiving the therapy.
Reference: Bongso A,Lee EH: Stem cells: From bench to bedside. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.; 2011.